The Known World
509 B.C. Founding of Roman Republic
498 Aeschylus (525-456) begins writing plays
490 The Persian Empire under Darius the Great defeated by Athens at the Battle of Marathon.
468 Sophocles (497-406) first wins the Dionysian drama festival.
468-465 Xerxes emperor of Persia
468 Cincinnatus throws down his plow to become dictator and save Rome.
455 Euripides (480-406) first enters the Dionysian drama festival.
432 Parthenon completed
431 Sparta attacks Athens in the Peloponnesian Wars.
399 Socrates dies by hemlock.
377 Death of Hippocrates
360 Plato (427-347) writes The Republic.
356 Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders, destroyed by arson.
338 Philip of Macedon (382-336) conquers Athens and Thebes.
336 Zeus fathers Alexander the Great on Philip’s wife Olympias.
343 Aristotle (384-322) becomes the tutor of Alexander.
330 Alexander (356-323) conquers the Persian Empire
350 The Mausoleum built for King Mausollos.
282 Colossus of Rhodes completed.
265 Archimedes (287-212) shouts “Eureka!” after discovering the principle of bouyancy.
235 Library of Alexandria founded
218 Hannibal (247-182) crosses the Alps with elephants
202 Hannibal defeated by Rome.
146 Destruction of Carthage and Corinth
73 Spartacus’ revolt
 Imperial Era
58 Julius Caesar (100-44) begins conquest of Gaul.
51 Cleopatra (69-30) becomes Queen of Egypt
49 Caesar crosses the Rubicon
48 Cleopatra becomes the lover of Julius Caesar.
44 Julius Caesar assassinated by a conspiracy led by Brutus and Cassius.
42 Cleopatra becomes the lover of Marc Anthony.
37 Herod the Great king of Judaea.
30 Cleopatra allows an asp to bite her after Marc Anthony defeated by Octavian.
27 BC Octavian becomes Augustus Caesar 63 BC-12 AD
1 A.D. Birth of Jesus, Star of Bethlehem, Angels and Shepherds
John the Baptist
12 Jesus left behind in the Temple.
12 Death of Cuchullain
18 Caiaphas high priest in Jerusalem (until 36)
27 Preaching of John the Baptist (d. 29)
33 Water into Wine, Loaves and Fishes, Walking on Water, Raising Lazarus, Sermon on the Mount, Judas betrays, Pilate washes hands, Crucifixion, Resurrection, Ascension
Ahasueras the Wandering Jew begins wandering.
A pregnant Mary Magdalene flees to France
Barrabas is spared
Peter denies Christ, goes to Rome to found Vatican.
33 Ben Hur wins the big race.
37 Conversion of Paul on road to Damascus
40 The Apostle Matthew writes a gospel
43 Britain conquered by Emperor Claudius.
44 James the Greater martyred
37-41 Reign of Caligula
41-54 Reign of Claudius
43 Peter confronts sorcerer Simon Magus[ in Samaria
48 Destruction of Library of Alexandria
54 Nero (d. 69) becomes emperor.
60 Boadicea leads revolt against Romans.
63 Saint Luke writes a gospel, Acts
63 Joseph of Arimathea comes to Glastonbury, bringing with him the Holy Grail.
64 Nero fiddles while Rome burns; throws Christians to lions.
64 Peter martyred at Rome
65 Mark writes his gospel, based on Peter’s account
67 Martyrdom of Paul
68 James the Lesser martyred
69 St. Andrew crucified in Greece.
70 Destruction of Jerusalem, including Herod’s Temple
72 St. Thomas martyred in India.
79 Vesuvius erupts, destroying Pompeii and killing the naturalist Pliny the Elder (b. 23).
79 St. Jude killed by a mob in Persia along with St. Simon.
80 Coliseum opened in Rome.
90 St. Philip crucified in Asia Minor.
90 St. Matthew dies a natural death in Persia.
95 John sees the Apocalypse at Patmos
96 Roman Empire reaches its greatest extent under Trajan.
Three Kingdom Era
117-138 Hadrian builds his wall.
149 Galen becomes an attendant of Asclepius.
161 Marcus Aurelias (121-180), stoic philosopher, becomes emperor.
206 Bran Mak Morn is leader of the Picts.
250 Seven Sleepers bed down in Ephesus
280 Martyrdom of Saint Valentine, who cured the daughter of his jailer and left a note to her “from your Valentine.”
284 Death of Fionn mac Cumhaill
303 Martyrdom of Saint George (b. 275); the dragon must have been slain earlier
306 Old King Coel rules Britain from Colchester.
313 Constantine establishes Christianity as the Imperial religion.
325 Nicean Council
330 Constantine moves capital from Rome to Constantinople.
Birth of Merlin
386 Saint Augustine (354-430) is converted.
406 Saint Jerome writes the Vulgate Bible.