Classical Era

The Classical Era is the time between the founding of Rome and its fall—between the Iron Age and the Dark Ages.

509 B.C. Founding of Roman Republic

498 Aeschylus (525-456) begins writing plays

490 The Persian Empire under Darius the Great defeated by Athens at the Battle of Marathon.

450 Socrates (470-399) meets the paradoxical Zeno (490?-430?)

468 Sophocles (497-406) first wins the Dionysian drama festival.

468-465 Xerxes emperor of Persia

468 Cincinnatus throws down his plow to become dictator and save Rome.

455 Euripides (480-406) first enters the Dionysian drama festival.


432 Parthenon completed

431 Sparta attacks Athens in the Peloponnesian Wars.

412-323 Diogenes

399 Socrates dies by hemlock.

377 Death of Hippocrates

360 Plato (427-347) writes The Republic.

356 Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders, destroyed by arson.

338 Philip of Macedon (382-336) conquers Athens and Thebes.

336 Zeus fathers Alexander the Great on Philip’s wife Olympias.

343 Aristotle (384-322) becomes the tutor of Alexander.

330 Alexander (356-323) conquers the Persian Empire

350 The Mausoleum built for King Mausollos.

282 Colossus of Rhodes completed.

265 Archimedes (287-212) shouts “Eureka!” after discovering the principle of bouyancy.

235 Library of Alexandria founded

218 Hannibal (247-182) crosses the Alps with elephants

202 Hannibal defeated by Rome.

146 Destruction of Carthage and Corinth

73 Spartacus’ revolt

[edit] Imperial Era

58 Julius Caesar (100-44) begins conquest of Gaul.

51 Cleopatra (69-30) becomes Queen of Egypt

49 Caesar crosses the Rubicon

48 Cleopatra becomes the lover of Julius Caesar.

44 Julius Caesar assassinated by a conspiracy led by Brutus and Cassius.

42 Cleopatra becomes the lover of Marc Anthony.

37 Herod the Great king of Judaea.

30 Cleopatra allows an asp to bite her after Marc Anthony defeated by Octavian.

27 BC Octavian becomes Augustus Caesar 63 BC-12 AD

1 A.D. Birth of Jesus, Star of Bethlehem, Angels and Shepherds

2 A.D. Arrival of Magi—Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar. Flight into Egypt. Massacre of the Innocents.

John the Baptist



12 Jesus left behind in the Temple.

12 Death of Cuchullain

18 Caiaphas high priest in Jerusalem (until 36)

27 Preaching of John the Baptist (d. 29)

33 Water into Wine, Loaves and Fishes, Walking on Water, Raising Lazarus, Sermon on the Mount, Judas betrays, Pilate washes hands, Crucifixion, Resurrection, Ascension

Ahasueras the Wandering Jew begins wandering.

A pregnant Mary Magdalene flees to France

Barrabas is spared

Peter denies Christ, goes to Rome to found Vatican.

33 Ben Hur wins the big race.

37 Conversion of Paul on road to Damascus

40 The Apostle Matthew writes a gospel

43 Britain conquered by Emperor Claudius.



44 James the Greater martyred

37-41 Reign of Caligula

41-54 Reign of Claudius

43 Peter confronts sorcerer Simon Magus[ in Samaria

48 Destruction of Library of Alexandria

54 Nero (d. 69) becomes emperor.

60 Boadicea leads revolt against Romans.

62 Saint Bartholemew crucified in India.

63 Saint Luke writes a gospel, Acts

63 Joseph of Arimathea comes to Glastonbury, bringing with him the Holy Grail.

64 Nero fiddles while Rome burns; throws Christians to lions.

64 Peter martyred at Rome

65 Mark writes his gospel, based on Peter’s account

67 Martyrdom of Paul

68 James the Lesser martyred

69 St. Andrew crucified in Greece.

70 Destruction of Jerusalem, including Herod’s Temple

72 St. Thomas martyred in India.

73 Masada

79 Vesuvius erupts, destroying Pompeii and killing the naturalist Pliny the Elder (b. 23).

79 St. Jude killed by a mob in Persia along with St. Simon.

80 Coliseum opened in Rome.

90 St. Philip crucified in Asia Minor.

90 St. Matthew dies a natural death in Persia.

90-168 Ptolemy

95 John sees the Apocalypse at Patmos

96 Roman Empire reaches its greatest extent under Trajan.

100 B.C.-500

Three Kingdom Era

117-138 Hadrian builds his wall.

149 Galen becomes an attendant of Asclepius.

161 Marcus Aurelias (121-180), stoic philosopher, becomes emperor.

206 Bran Mak Morn is leader of the Picts.

250 Seven Sleepers bed down in Ephesus

280 Martyrdom of Saint Valentine, who cured the daughter of his jailer and left a note to her “from your Valentine.”

284 Death of Fionn mac Cumhaill

303 Martyrdom of Saint George (b. 275); the dragon must have been slain earlier

306 Old King Coel rules Britain from Colchester.

313 Constantine establishes Christianity as the Imperial religion.

325 Nicean Council

330 Constantine moves capital from Rome to Constantinople.

Birth of Merlin

386 Saint Augustine (354-430) is converted.

406 Saint Jerome writes the Vulgate Bible.

Classical Era

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